Years ago medical diagnosis depended on the doctor's judgment. But now you have the latest diagnostic equipment and computers. Prevention and control of diseases have revolutionized the health care sector. Though the times have changed, the word 'doctor' still commands respect. After XII in PCB, one goes for MBBS (Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery) and thereafter internship. Many MBBS graduates go for post- graduation specializing in surgery, medicine, gynecology, dermatology, pediatrics, psychiatry, ophthalmology, pathology etc. Alternative careers like hospital administration, bio-informatics, genetic engineering, nutritional science are also available after MBBS. The entry into medical colleges after 12 th is through entrance exams such as NEET conducted by CBSE, and other exams. A student is required to compete in Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Typically objective questions are asked. A number of students are still confused about whether to go in for this option or not. We are providing some negative points and some positives below to help you finalize this decision. Some of the positive of career in the fields of medicine are respect, sense of contribution, and money and name once you are established, Some of the negatives are long, long time of studies, low starting salaries, no fixed working hours, and need to upgrade knowledge throughout life. In the next 5-7 years, there would be a lot of synergy between medicine and IT, hospital information systems, medical software, and medical consultancy onthe Internet. India is also firmly established as a country for medical tourism and foreigners flock to India for knee surgery, teeth removal, cataract operation etc.


  • All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Delhi
  • AFMC, Pune
  • CMC, Vellore
  • CMC, Ludhiana
  • MGIM- Wardha
  • Jamia Hamdard, Delhi
  • St. John Medical College, Bangalore
  • Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh
  • JIPMER, Pondicherry
  • Banaras Hindu University
  • GGSIPU, Delhi
  • MANIPAL- Karnataka
  • Bharatiya Vidyapeeth, Pune 


Dentistry is defined as the evaluation, diagnosis, prevention and/or treatment (nonsurgical, surgical or related procedures) of diseases, disorders and/or conditions of the oral cavity, maxillofacial area and/or the adjacent and associated structures and their impact on the human body.Opinions and plan of treatment to be undertaken by a dentist is always based on clinical, bacteriological tests or X-rays. To treat the oral disorders is the main work of a dentist. Scaling, cleaning and fluoride therapy is also provided by a dentist. Dentists repair teeth damaged by decay or trauma and rebuild tooth structures for functional or cosmetic reasons and help in providing crowns and bridges. A dentist designs dentures i.e. .he is expert in making and fitting false teeth. Malformation and misalignment of teeth and jaws are corrected by providing 'braces' or other appliances. A dentist also treats diseases of the roots, gums and soft tissues of the mouth and carries out various surgical procedures. He also fills cavities in the teeth. Cosmetic dental surgeons fit artificial replacements where necessary. Cosmetic dentistry has replaced metal with tooth-colored materials that are highly translucent and it becomes difficult to find the difference between natural teeth or the false teeth. So the dentist is a sort of combination of a professional man and a mechanic. Candidates who have passed 10+2 with Physics, Chemistry and Biology, with at least 50% marks are eligible for admission in the Bachelor of Dental Science. The admission to BDS program me is through AIPMT and other exams. The BDS degree is obtained after 4 years of training followed by one year of internship. The Master's degree needs two years of specialized training. For an MDS degree, one needs to have a BDS degree.


  • Bharatiya Vidyapeeth, Pune


BAMS stands for Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgery. BAMS is an undergraduate degree program designed to make students familiar with the concepts of Ayurveda and use them for the treatment of patients. BAMS incorporates Ayurveda with the ideas of modern medicines, and students are taught a combination of both as part of the course curriculum. Ayurveda is one of the oldest systems of medicine and traces its roots to Vedic times. It is based on the curative properties of herbs, and its treatments are known for the natural elements they contain. Considered an alternate treatment method, the Ayurveda medicine system not only cures and prevents an ailment but also reduces the frequency with which diseases enter the human body. It utilizes the self-healing system of the body. Currently, this alternative method of healing is being accepted by people worldwide. Even the World Health Organization has provided a worldwide forum for promoting traditional medicine systems such as Ayurveda. Therefore, the Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgery (BAMS) as a course has opened up many promising opportunities for students.


BHMS is a four letter acronym that can stand for  Bachelor of Homeopathic Medicine and Surgery Bachelor of Homeopathic Medicine and Surgery is an undergraduate course for studying Homeopathy in India . It is an entry level course for becoming Homeopathic Doctor in India . BHMS is governed by Ministry of Ayush in India . Where “AYUSH “ stands for AY. Ayurveda U. Unnani S. SiddhaH. Homeopathy .

There are many Homeopathic Medical Colleges in India Approved by Ministry of Ayush . List of Top 5 Homeopathic Medical Colleges for Doing BHMS in India are:
  • National Institute of Homeopathy.
  • Homeopathic Medical College Abohar.
  • Bhopal Institute of Homeopathy.
  • Bhartiya Vidhyapeeth Homeopathic Medical College.
  • Nehru Homeopathic Medical College.


BPT bachelor of physical therapy and bachelor of occupational Therapy are posted for internship of six months duration at various hospitals of Delhi and the PT and OT outpatient departments of the Institute on a rotational basis. One month rural posting is compulsory. The students of bachelor of prosthetics and orthotics are given practical training in fabrication and fitment of rehabilitation aids & appliances to the disabled persons suffering from post polio residual paralysis, amputation, paraplegia, quadriplegia and other orthopaedic deformities etc.  Students are exposed to training in State of the art technology in the field of Prosthetics & Orthotics. Mode of Admission The candidates are admitted to the bachelor of physical therapy/ occupational therapy/ prosthetics & orthotics through an entrance test conducted every year in the month of June/July. Common entrance test for admissions in the Institute was conducted by the Institute in collaboration with University of Delhi.   Eligibility   The candidates seeking admission to the courses of Bachelor of Physical Therapy, Bachelor of Occupational Therapy and Bachelor of Prosthetics & Orthotics must have passed one of the following examinations:  Senior School Certificate Examination of the Central Board of Secondary Education (12th standard of 10+2 system) or an examination recognised as equivalent thereto with Physics, Chemistry, Biology and English (PCBE) for BPT/BOT and Physics, Chemistry, Biology/Mathematics and English (PCME)/(PCBE) for BPO, provided the student has passed in each qualifying subject separately before the date of admission. Indian School Certificate Examination of the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examination or equivalent with PCBE for BPT/BOT and PCBE/PCME for BPO. Intermediate/Pre-medical  Examination  or  equivalent  with  PCBE  for  BPT/BOT  and PCBE/PCME for BPO. The candidates who have passed one of the above 12th class examinations with PCME are eligible for BPO course only. The candidates should have a minimum of 50% marks in aggregate in above mentioned four qualifying subjects for general category and 45% for Scheduled Caste/Scheduled Tribe/Physically Handicapped and Children/Widows of Armed Personnel including Paramilitary Personnel category. The Candidates should have completed 17 years of age on or before the 1st day of October of admission year. The maximum age limit is 23 years for General category & others and 28 years for SC/ST/PH category candidates.


Do you want to make a new drug which will benefit the human race? Or better still, a pill which makes you smile and laugh? Look at Pharmacy - the science dealing with the origin of drugs, their preparation, dispensing and ultimate use for prevention of diseases in living beings. Compounding and mixing of ingredients to form powders, capsules, ointments, tablets and solutions is part and parcelof a pharmacist's job. Foreign MNCs outsource lot of research work to India because of low costs of production,innovative scientific manpower, strong ~;;£; national labs and a good name for research ? in the world. Also Indian companies have been exporting medicines across the world. Individuals work in research, industrial pharmacy (clinical trial, quality control), retailpharmacy and as a hospital pharmacist. The hospital pharmacist works in a laboratory and medical store taking care of procurement, stocking, preparation and dispensing of medicines, drugs and other medical accessories (like stents). Some individuals also work in the marketing of pharma products and services. After B. Pharma, entry level jobs like 'sales representative' are available or one can do a management course and join the management cadre of pharma companies. After Class XII (PCB/M), you can go for the four-year B. Pharma degree or a two-year diploma. B. Pharma can be followed by two-year post graduation. One can also opt for M.Sc. (Biotechnology) after Bachelor's degree. Prof. Roop K. Khar, Ex-Head, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard, says that pharma study opens up avenues in Biotechnology, Clinical Research, Regulatory affairs, Management positions in Pharma and even as a PatentAttorney (in Ccmbination with a law degree). Universities in the US, Canada and the UK are open to taking graduates for higher courses like MS and Ph.D after which they are gainfully employed, he adds.

Personal Characteristics
  • Scientific bent of mind.
  • Ability to work methodically.
  • Sympathetic Attitude

Indian Employers

  • Ranbaxy.
  • Cipla
  • Dr. Reddy
  • Nicholas Piramal
  • Government Research Bodies
  • Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow
  • National Chemical Lab, Pune
  • Council for Scientific and Industrial Research
  • Indian Institute of Chemical Technology

TOP PHARMCY Institutes

    • Punjab University, Punjab
    • Jamia  Hamdard  University Delhi
    • BITS Pilani, Rajasthan
    • National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research(NIPER), Mohali
    • Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai
    • National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research(NIPER), Telangana
    • JSS College of Pharmacy
    • Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences
    • JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research
    • National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research(NIPER) Gujarat
  • DIPSAR ,New Delhi


If you really care for other people, are sensitive and have a spirit of service with dedication -gofor nursing. Remarkable opportunities are available in this field as all countries the US, the UK, the UAE need lots of nurses. The job of a nurse is to give bedside care to recovering patients. They also assist doctors during examination and surgeries on patients. A nurse has to change dressings, assist patients in personal care, administer medicine, prepare patient for surgery, record temperature, pulse rate, nourishment, progress and so on. Nurses are also responsible for maintaining a healthy and hygienic environment. Nurses also work with corporates to render preventive or remedial services under the directions of a resident doctor. A school nurse provides first aid to students, attends to sudden illnesses and may interact with students on hygiene issues. Training is available after Class X (Auxiliary Nurse Midwife) and after Class XII (Diploma and B.Sc. programmes). Some prominent institutes take students from PCB stream only. For pursuing a certificate course in General Nursing, General Nursing Midwives (GNM) and Male Nursing, a pass in Class X (Science) is the prerequisite. Government hospitals pay in the region of Rs.25,000 Rs.40,000 (depending on experience); reputed private hospitals pay Rs.35,000 to Rs.55,000. Nurses going abroad for work can earn $35,000 to $40,000 US dollars per annum.

Personal Characteristics

  • Patience.
  • Orderliness in work.
  • Professional commitment
  • Adaptability
  • Sensitiveness
  • Ability to work at odd hours


  • AIIMS, Delhi
  • Delhi University (Raj Kumari Amrit Kaur college of Nursing), New Delhi
  • CMC, Vellore and Ludhiana
  • Vardhman Mahavir Medical College (IP University),Delhi
  • Father Muller College of Nursing
  •  St. John’s College of Nursing, Bangalore
  • Chatrapati Sahuji Maharaja University (College of Nursing), Kanpur
  • Jamia Hamdard (Faculty of Nursing), New Delhi
  • Ahilya Bai College of Nursing, Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi
  • PGI Chandigarh, College of Nursing


Go for a career which would be really hot in five years from now. Agriculture and Dairy Science is one such career. This is a career which was lost in the sands of time and is now make an amazing comeback. And the reasons are not far to seek. Agriculture still forms the backbone of our economy supporting 65% of •«- our population. The adoption of latest scientific techniques in agriculture and dairy science has increased the output and profitability tremendously. In fact, today India is among the largest producers of milk, fruits and vegetables in the world.Moreover, India has the potential to be a food bowl of the entire world. The multinationals in India are outsourcing research work in these sectors to India. So a number of diverse and well-paying career paths are available.

Employment Opportunities

  • Dairy Farming
  • Poultry Farming
  • Horticulture
  • Sericulture
  • Tea and Coffee Plantation
  • Mushroom Cultivation
  • Fisheries
  • Food Processing
  • Food Packaging
  • Plant Entomology
  • Agriculture
  • Documentation
  • Agri-Management
  • Agro-Industry
  • Agri-Education-Kisan Call Centre

Research and Development

  • Agri-Biotechnology
  • Seed Hybridization
  • Dairy Science and Technology
  • Product and Process Development
  • Agriculture Forest Engineering


  • Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Delhi
  • G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology
  • Indian Council for AgricultureResearch (ICAR)
  • NDRI, Karnal
  • HRB Garhwal Unversity, Garhwal
  • Guru Nanak Dev University
  • Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana
  • Dr.YS Parmar University Horticulture and Forestry
  • University of Rajasthan, Jaipur
  • Kerala Agriculture University
  • Sericulture University, Mysore
  • IIM-A and llM-L


Chakki Fresh Atta" "Fresh Vegetables in a Pouch", Dried Vegetables in soup all reach you courtesy food technologists. Food Technology is the science of processing food stuffs. In recent times, consumption of processed food has increased manifold. Earlier, this was a disorganized sector but now large integrated players are entering into food production, procurement, processing, distribution andretailing areas. Organizations like Bharti Enterprises, and Jindal’s have invested hundreds of crores of rupees in food processing ventures. Food Technologists undertake research for designing new food processing techniques, creating new foodstuff, evolving measures such as fungicidal treatment to control food spoilage. They also develop quality control systems for the organizations. Food technologists with specialization in biotechnology work in the fields of plant genetics, microbial fermentation, gene splicing. You can pursue three-year B.Sc. or a four-year B.Tech in Food Science & Technology. Alternatively, after graduation in Chemistry, Bio-chemistry, Microbiology, Agricultural Science, Home Science, you can go for post- graduation in food science. Starting salaries hover around Rs.25,000 to Rs.35,000 and can go up to Rs.75,000 or even more. Assignments are also available abroad especially in Gulf countries.

Personal Characteristics

  • Analytical mind
  • Enjoy technical work
  • Ability to work in teams
  • Basic interest in foodstuff, flavours and processing


  • Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore
  • Indian Institute of Crop Processing Technology
  • National Institute of Food Technology and Entrepreneurship and
  • University of Calcutta, Kolkata
  • Bhim Rao Ambedkar University, Agra
  • Harcourt Butler Technological Institute, Kanpur
  • Jadavpur University
  • University of Delhi, Delhi
  • Punjab Technical University, Jalandhar
  • Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar
  • Punjabi University, Patiala
  • Osmania University, Hyderabad
  • University of Mysore, Mysore

Employment Opportunities

  • Hotels
  • Food industries
  • Hospitals
  • Distilleries
  • Soft-drink companies
  • Spice, cereals, rice mills
  • Government research centres
  • Multinational company (food)


Do you want to make a new tomato which is as big as a hot air balloon, or find a cure for a genetic disease such as hemophilia(a disorder in which blood does not clot easily)? - Go for Genetics. Genetic scientists research genes, study the effects of heat, light, temperature and chemicals. Genetic scientists study the structure, composition, function and replication of chromosomes and genes. Genetic engineering involves changing the gene structure by rearranging, altering or splicing to improve the quality of crops and livestock. Because of low manpower costs, multinational Pharma companies outsource a lot of research work to India to companies like Biocon. As a genetic scientist you can find work with government research bodies, pharma companies, biotech research companies, hospitals. A number of job opportunities are available abroad as well.You can take up B.Sc. (Genetics) or after B.Sc. in life sciences, go for M.Sc. (Genetics). So create new beings, plants, seeds and remove all the diseases from this world.

Personal Characteristics

  • Personal Characteristics
  • Patience
  • Love for detail
  • Analytical skills
  • Interest in research


  • University of Delhi, Delhi
  • Ch. Charan Singh Haryana Agriculture University, Hissar
  • Punjab Agriculture University, Ludhiana
  • Punjab University, Patiala
  • Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Solan ( HP)
  • Banaras Hindu University, Varansai
  • Osmania University, Hyderabad
  • University of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram
  • University of Chennai, Chennai
  • Bangalore University, Bangalore
  • University of Pune, Pune


You want to solve a big problem like droughts, or infectious diseases, improve crop yields, detect and treat heart diseases? Then go for Biotechnology. The underlying thread is to be able to harness the energies of the living world toimprove upon the existing medical, industrial and agricultural knowledge. Plant yields can be improved, newer varieties can be developed, new vaccines can be made and changes at embryo level can be done to cure genetically transmitted diseases. Biotechnology is an interdisciplinary area and requires chemical engineers, biochemists microbiologists, computational scientist, virologists, immunologists, etc. Suppose a company wants to develop a medicine plant. It will commission a botanist to find the plant, a horticulturist to grow it in specified conditions, a tissue culture specialist to isolate properties responsible for the cure, an organic chemist to work on the molecular compound and so on. Government is also chipping in by providing tax holidays for agribiotech companies, favouring use of genetically modified crops. A word of caution! Starting salaries are in the range of Rs.40,000 to Rs.50,000 per month. Moreover, private institutes are not able to impart practical training due to lack of infrastructure and practical expertise. It would take about 7-8 years for one to build up a successful career. So rack up your research brains and compete for a slice of biotechnology.


  • Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Delhi, Mumbai, Kanpur, Chennai

  • Delhi College of Engineering, Delhi

  • Netaji Subhash Institute of Technology, Delhi

  • GGSIPU, Delhi

  • GNDU, Amritsar

  • Bangalore University, Bangalore

  • Jaypee Institute of Technology, Noida and Guna

Employment Opportunities

  • Pharma Sector : Biocon, Serum Institute, Wockhardt, and Viziphar Bioscience
    Agriculture Related: Monsanto and Methelix
  • Bioinformatics : Strand Genomics, Genotypic Technology, TCS, and Wipro
    Government Agencies : IGIB, DBT, AIIMS, National Institute of Immunology


Everyday morning when a child gets up in India, Mom says: Bachche doodh pee le... Milk is seen as an essential commodity to be consumed in our country. All major corporates, Indians or multinational like Brittania, Nestle, Hindustan Unilever and other already have or would jump into the fray. So there would be a demand for professionals in this area. Dairy technologists work in public and privately managed dairy farms, cooperatives, rural banks, milk product processing and manufacturing industries. They work in quality control department and in biotechnological research. Dairy technologist work on development of new and improved methods in production, preservation and utilization of milk, cheese and other dairy products. They apply their knowledge of bacteriology, economics, engineering and physical sciences.A B.Tech. or B.Sc. in Dairy Technology can be pursued after having studied+2 with PCM. Admission is through an all India entrance examination conducted for selection to courses in Veterinary Sciences, Dairy Technology and Agriculture Sciences. The dairy technology programme incorporates subjects dealing with dairy engineering as applied to production processes, dairy chemistry which deals with the composition of the product, dairy bacteriology dealing with research and biotechnological applications and quality control with testing procedures. The course includes inputs into management of dairy plants and processing industries including financial management. Dairy Technology as a career is making an amazing comeback. The multinational companies in India are also pushing for research and research work is being outsourced to India from foreign research companies. So a number of diverse and well paying career paths are available.

Major Employers

  • Unilever
  • Nestle
  • Glaxo
  • Smith Kline Beecham
  • Mother Dairy


  • National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal

  • Indian Council of Agricultural Research (Alllndia Entrance Test)


Growing fruits, handling creepers, making flowers bloom - all are part of Horticulture which deal with cultivation of flowers and fruits, their processing, marketing, storage and related techniques. It also involves crop development, DNA testing of various crops, weed control and insect disease. Horticulture has been accorded a 100 per cent export oriented unit (EOU) status. There is a good demand for cut flowers in Europe, US and other Asian countries which India can fulfill. Olericutrure deals with improvement of onion & garlic, tomato, cucumber, peas, chili and pepper crops. Floriculturists specialize in flower and nursery operations. Plant propagation work entails developing new kinds of plant growth, devising nutrient formulas etc. Tissue culture and embryo culture are also utilized in horticulture. Government horticulture departments, fruit, flower, cashew, tea and coffee plantations employ horticulturists. Holiday resorts, garden shops, farm houses have resident horticulturists. Export oriented units also employ horticulturists. After completing XII (PCB), you can go for B.Sc (Horticulture) followed by M.Sc. Indian Council for Agricultural Research conducts an all India entrance test for entry in this course. B.Sc. (Horticulture) is a four-year degree course. Various branches of study in horticulture are Pomology (Fruits), Floriculture (Flowers), Garden Management and Fruit and Vegetable Technology, So, join horticulture and let your career bloom.

Personal Characteristics

  • Interest in nature
  • Keen observation
  • Patience
  • Love for plant life


  • GB Pant College of Agriculture, Pantnagar

  • Allahabad Agriculture Institute

  • Punjab Agricultural University,Ludhiana

  • Dr. YS Parmar University ofHorticulture and Forestry, Solan

  • CCSU College of Agriculture,Hissar

Employment Opportunities

  • Scientist (ICAR)
  • Food and vegetable inspector
  • Farm supervisor
  • Food processing units
  • Agriculture magazines
  • Biotechnology sector
  • NGOs
  • Hotels
  • Golf courses
  • Own business


National Defence Academy (NDA) - a name which evokes respect, and honors and of course accomplishment. Since its inception six decades ago, as one of the first institutions in the world to impart combined training to officer cadets of Army, Navy and Air Force, NDA has steadily grown both in stature and plan. The alumni of this institution constitute the core leadership of the Indian armed forces. As of today the three Service Chiefs, three Vice Chiefs andmajority of Commander-in-Chiefs besides many other senior officers in the three services are alumni of NDA . The tidy 6700 acres of its vast estate reflects the highest standards that the institution has embraced as core of its beliefs. The Edifice in the Making', as the first PM called NDA on laying its foundation stone, is today, the pride of India. The revision of military and academic curricula which is aimed at revitalizing the training and producing effective military leaders is a step towards that. In the near future, Peacock Bay will become a major hub of Waterman ship Training Activities with the construction of a sloping jetty and Waterman ship Complex. The AFTT will acquire a modernized Trap shooting range apart from the Skeet range it already has, as well as Psychomotor Skill Development Devices (PSDD). Cadets can practice cross-country running on a soft ground track planned to be laid in the glider dome area. A state-of-the-art, Language Laboratory for the Languages Departments, is also on the anvil. In addition, centers of excellence in sports have been created to motivate cadets to participate in sports competitions at national and international levels. Coaching by professional coaches is also being organized. Above all, the organization and construction of a new Squadron in addition to the existing fifteen Squadrons is being contemplated. This will increase the number of cadets being trained at NDA to 2000 from the present strength of 1800. However, the most encouraging news about the National Defence Academy is that it has proved itself to be a centre of excellence for military training. The NDA has also gone global. Interactions with foreign military academies have increased manifold. There have been exchange programmes between cadets of NDA and those of the United States Military Academy (USMA) (Westpoint),USA, the Australian Defence Academy (ADFA), University of Science and Technology of the Chinese People's Liberation Army, Nanjing, China and the Chulachomklao Royal Military Academy, Thailand to name a few. Moreover, the number of cadets of foreign nations being trained at NDA has increased. NDA had the distinction of training nationals from 18 countries earlier. These included Afghanistan, Bhutan, Ethiopia, Ghana, Iran, Iraq, Kenya, Libya, Malaysia, Maldives, Nepal, Nigeria, Palestine, Seychelles, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, and Tonga. Tothis list, now, have been added cadets from Kazakhstan, Kyrgyztan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Lesotho. Admission to National Defence Academy (NDA) is through an exam held twice a year in the month of April and September. The notification for the exam is published in Employment News and in other leading newspapers. NDA has three wings, namely, Army, Air force and Navy. Naval Academy is also available through the same competitive exam. NDA gives a Bachelor's degree in Arts, Science or Computer Science when the training is over. If you join the technical stream, then engineering degree for graduation and post graduation is awarded from one of the best institutions of the nation. Master of Science degree in Defence and Strategic Studies is awarded to the candidates selected for the Defence Services Staff College programme. Students who wish to join Air Force Academy, have to undergo a pilot aptitude battery test at one of the AFSB and AF Medical at Central Medical Establishment/ Institute of Aviation Medicines. In the training at Naval Engineering College, the cadets are trained in Naval architecture, Marine Engineering and Electrical Engineering.At the time of filling up the form, the candidate needs to tell his preference for wing he is willing to go. However, the final decision is taken on the basis of the marks the candidate secures in the examination and the SSB. To sit for exam, the candidate must be between 16/4 years and 19 years of age on date of publication of the notification. Army: Candidates should have passed the 10+2 or an equivalent examination. Air Force and Navy: Candidates should have passed the 10+2 examination with Maths and Physics. Those candidates who have appeared for their Class XII exam are also eligible. Selection Procedure The selection process for the National Defence Academy has three phases: A written examination held by the Union Public Service Commission. An interview by the Service Selection Board to assess a candidate's officer potentialities (intelligence and personality test). A medical examination by a Service Medical Board.

Scheme of the Examination

  • Paper I – Mathematics: (Maximum Marks 300): Arithmetic, Mensuration, Algebra, Geometry, Trigonometry, Statistics.

  • Paper II – General Ability
    Part A – English (Maximum Marks 200): Synonyms, Antonyms, Comprehension, Vocabulary Test, Misspelled words, Error in Sentences, Idioms and Phrases, One-word Substitution, Jumbled Words, Fill in the Blanks, Comprehension

    Part B – General Knowledge (Maximum Marks 400) : Physics, Chemistry, Biology, History, Civics, Geography, Current Affairs etc.

  • How to Crack the NDA Exam?
    The Mantra for Quant/How to attempt Quantitative section?
    Normally, we attempt problems sequentially i.e., 1st, 2nd, 3rd and so on. The problem with this approach is that if one is stuck at a problem, a lot of time is
    wasted and easier problems to be found later in the paper are missed. A good strategy that has withstood the test of time is: Attempt the problems in three
    rounds. In the first round (say 10-12 mins), solve the problems which are very easy and which can be solved by minor mental calculations. Simultaneously, one can mark the questions, which one is confident of solving i.e., approach is understood but more time is needed to solve the problem. This ensures that one has cracked the easy 12-15 problems in the first 8-10 minutes. In the second round, the questions marked in the first round can be solved. The success rate would now be high, as one has chosen the questions. In the third round, one would be left with very little time and one can utilize this to attempt the untouched tough questions. Quite a few problems can be solved by carefully scanning the choices without
    solving the question. For example – Q. 1250 mangoes were distributed among a group of boys. Each boy got twice as many mangoes as the number of boys in the group. How many boys were there in the group? Answer Choices: (a) 25 (b) 45 (c) 50 (d) 625. The traditional approach is to form an equation in x (no. of mangoes) and solve it. But the better approach is to mentally match the choices with the data. This way you get the correct answer which is right. In other cases, problems can be solved upto a point and then answer can be found by looking at the choices. If in a particular question, one needs to multiply two large numbers to get the answer (say 759 X 65) and in the choices one finds only one number with 5 in the unit's place, then there is no need to calculate further. The choice is very clear.

    Many aspirants make less effort to improve their scores in the this section. Though the path to improvement is tough, one can follow certain strategies
    and tactics to improve the score. The questions can be classified as (a) Odd Man Out (b) Analogies (c) Anagrams/Jumbled Words (d) Logical Fill-In Blanks (e) Missing Link (f) Straight Vocabulary based questions. One way to build up the vocabulary is to note down difficult words (and their
    meaning) which you come across while reading anything. The other way is to memorize word-lists. Another way of memorizing is (i) learning about 40-50 words in one sitting, (ii) revising these within three-four days (iii) Re- memorizing words which one is not able to remember in the third round by
    using cards which one can carry around or stick near the place one studies.  
    The best way to improve scores in this section is by reading more and more. There is no substitute to reading. But reading can be given a structure as
  • Read every issue of a general magazine like India Today or Outlook from cover to cover. Read the editorial page of the newspaper daily.
  • Read diverse material. Say if one has been reading only thrillers till now, one can start reading books/novels on spiritualism, science fiction
    and soon. Read stuff on areas which you have not touched till now.Each paragraph has a central idea. Similarly, each passage has a theme. While reading anything, try to understand this central idea and theme. If one inculcates this habit, it would be very handy in the exam.
  • General Knowledge
    In this section, questions are on Physics, Chemistry, Biology, History, Civics Geography, Current Affairs. Checkout,,,
  • Useful Websites


Paramedical services are those which assist medical profession in various forms e.g. radiography, medical laboratory technology, nursing, speech therapy, occupational therapy etc. Paramedical science is the backbone of medical science because right diagnosis of any disease is necessary for curing it. The main areas in paramedical education include physiotherapy, pharmacy, nursing, occupational therapy, audiology and speech therapy, medical m laboratory technology, radiology/X-ray technology, dental hygienist and dental mechanics, operation theatre assistant, optometry and ophthalmic assistant and other miscellaneous job oriented courses.

Nature of Work

  • Physiotherapy: This branch of medical science is concerned with the assessment, evaluation and treatment of physical disability, pain resulting from injury, disease or other health related problems. The professionally trained person who administers this treatment is called as a physiotherapist. A physiotherapist treats mainly post-operative cases like fracture, dislocation, amputation, neurological cases, nerve injuries, heart and chest conditions, skin conditions, muscular diseases, burns, plastic surgery etc.
  • Nursing: It is one of the most well-known paramedical professions which is a vital part of medical care. In the hospital, from general ward to the operation theatre, nursing is the most important component of patient care. Nursing is an essential component of the healthcare system.
  • Occupational Therapy: It focuses on helping individuals with mental or physical illness/ disability to come back to normalcy. Occupational therapist uses various methods in the treatment of their patients to assist them in maximum recovery and becoming normal after a prolonged disabling illness. This type of therapy is patient specific, involving recreational, creative or educational activities.
  • Audiology and Speech Therapy: Hearing is a crucial means for the acquisition and monitoring of language and speech. Audiology is the study of hearing disorders. These professionals treat people who are unable to speak or hear clearly. Audiologist use audiometers and other testing device to measure the loudness at which a person begins to hear sound, the ability to distinguish between sounds and the nature and extent of hearing loss. Speech therapist uses special instruments as well as written and oral test to determine the nature and extent of impairment and to record and analyze speech disorders.
  • Medical Laboratory Technology (WILT) : Medical laboratory technologists examine and analyze body fluids, tissues, blood typing, microorganisms, chemical analyses, cell counts etc. of the human body. They play an important role in collecting the information needed for treating most pathology cases by sampling, testing, analyzing and reporting such investigations.
  • Radiology and X-Ray Technology: Radiographers take x-ray images of body parts to aid diagnosis of medical problems. They conduct the x-ray examination of the patient's body, make the exposure, and then develop the x-ray film. Experienced radiologist can perform more complex imaging tests. A postgraduate radiologist normally interprets the x-rays.
  • Dental Hygienist/Mechanic: These technicians assist dentists in treating patients. Dental hygienists are trained to perform the specific clinical procedures that aim to prevent dental disease, and work under the supervision of a dentist. The basic job of a dental mechanic is making and repairing artificial teeth, straightening of teeth and filling of cavities. They also help in the prevention and control of dental caries (decay) and gum disease. They also take dental x-rays, apply and remove periodontal packs, and advise the patient on how to take care of the teeth and mouth after operations.

Personal Characteristics

  • Sense of responsibility and dedication
  • Good communication skills
  • Ability to recall and memorize scientific facts
  • Physical stamina to work long and irregular hours
  • Patience, cool temperament, team spirit
  • Understanding of people
  • Pre-requisite The minimum qualification forgetting admission to any paramedical course is a pass in 10+2 or equivalent examination with Physics, Chemistry, Biology and English with at least 50% marks in each subjects. Minimum age limit is for candidate is 17 years.
  • Remunerations The average starting salary for paramedical professional varies from Rs.20,000 – Rs.25,000 per month. It may go to Rs.35,000 and more depending on personal skills & experience.
  • Professional courses You may pursue a two-year diploma or a bachelor's degree of 3 or 4 years' duration followed by masters' degree course of 2 or 3 years. Post graduation can be followed by Ph.D. Eligibility criteria for all the paramedical courses is broadly the same varying slightly according to particular course disciplines as mentioned below. Diploma in Pharmacy: 10+2 or equivalent with Physics, Chemistry and Biology or mathematics. This course is of two years duration. Bachelor in Pharmacy. 10+2 or its equivalent with 50% aggregate in Physics, Chemistry, Biology or Mathematics. Alternatively, the candidate should have passed D.Pharm. The admission is through an entrance examination. The duration of the course is four years.
  • Nursing ForB.Sc. (Nursing), the eligibility is a 10+2 with Biology, Physics and Chemistry. The course duration is three to four years. For M.Sc. (Nursing) the eligibility is B.Sc. (Nursing). The course duration is two years. For General Nursing and Midwifery (GNM), a 10+2 with Biology, Physics and Chemistry is the eligibility criteria. The course duration is three years and six months. For Auxiliary Nurse Midwife (ANM), and for Health Worker (female), the minimum qualification is Class X. Duration of the course is 18 months.


  • Amar Jyoti Institute of Physiotherpy, Delhi

  • Banarsidas Chandiwala Instititute of Physiotherapy, Delhi

  • Delhi University (Raj Kumari Amrit Kaur College of Nursing), Delhi

  • AIIMS (College of Nursing), Delhi

  • Chatrapati Sahuji Maharaja University (College of Nursing), Kanpur

  • Jamia Hamdard (Faculty of Nursing), New Delhi

  • Ahilya Bai College of Nursing, Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi

  • National Institute for the Orthopaedically Handicapped, Kolkata

  • India Institute of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Mumbai

  • NIRTAR, Cuttack

  • Pt. Deen Dayal Upadhyay Institute for Physically Handicapped, Delhi
    Christian Medical College, Vellore

  • Padmashree Dr. D.Y Patil College of Occupational Therapy, Navi Mumbai
    Dr. D.Y Patil College of Occupational Therapy, Kolhapur

  • Jamia Hamdard University (School Of Occupational), New Delhi

  • Aligarh Muslim University

  • Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Hospital – Delhi

  • Holy Family Hospital (Diploma in X-Ray Tech)

  • University College of Medical Science, Delhi University (B.Sc. Medical Lab

  • AMU, Aligarh (MLT in Microbiology, Biochemistry, Pathology)

  • All India Institute of Speech and Hearing, Mysore

  • All India Institute of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

  • Ali Yavar Jung Natioanl Institute for the Hearing Handicapped, Mumbai


Bioinformatics is the application of computer science to the management of biological data which is acquired, stored, organized and analyzed. Bioinformatics relies heavily on statistical methods. The building block of all life is the DNA and the diversity of humans or any other species is determined by it. Bioinformatics has two maJor roles: DevelopIT tools using novel algorithms or applying existing tools toachieve new insights in molecular biology in testing, documentation, databaseadministration, programming and scientific visualization. Drugs can be developed much faster using bioinformatics. Texicogenomics uses bioinformatics to understand why drugs work better on some patients than on others. Moreover, there is specialized work in agro-chemicals, hybridization, petroleum derivatives and environmental remediation. After XII, one should opt for B.Sc. or B.Tech. and follow it with a PG Diploma programme or M.Sc./M.Tech. in Bioinformatics. Jobs are available with IT companies like TCS, Wipro and IBM research center or with government research bodies like Dept. of Biotechnology. Pharma companies and biotech companies like Biocon also employ bioinformatics experts. A career in Bioinformatics is a long-haul career and you can reap dividends over a period of time.

Personal Characteristics

  • Dedication
  • Patience
  • Perseverance
  • Working in Detail
  • Scientific Temperament
  • Mathematical and Computational Skills


  • Sikkim Manipal University of Health, Gangtok

  • Indian Institute of Bioinformatics, Hyderabad

  • University of Calcutta, Kolkata

  • University of Kashmir, Srinagar

  • Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalayay, Bhopal

  • University of Pune

  • SASTRA (Deemed University), Thanjavur

  • Vellore Institute of Technology,Vellore

  • Pondicherry University


A triple murder has been reported in the city. Two weapons and a dirty cloth have been left behind. Now, it is your turn to unravel the mystery. Welcome to the world of Forensic Scientist where every day you get a new mystery. Forensic Scientists collect evidence from the crime spot - like bullets, explosives or biological evidence like blood, hair, teeth, bones, etc. They also photograph the site of the crime to piece together facts and document evidence. During criminal proceedings in court they testify and explain their findings and interpretation. They closely examine samples of evidence in the lab using microscope, spectroscope, infrared and other equipments. Forensic Toxicologists identify foreign chemicals, poison or drugs in human body. Forensic pathologists carry out autopsies to ascertain the cause of death. Forensic fingerprint experts are trained for the identification of fingerprint samples. DNA pattern identification is based on genetics and is majorly used in establishing maternity and paternity and even in rape cases. For a career as a Forensic Scientist, you can go for B.Sc. followed by M.Sc. in Forensic Science. So get ready for the thrill and challenge of forensic science.

Personal Characteristics

  • Aptitude for systematic investigation
  • Scientific bent of mind
  • Deductive ability
  • Curiosity


  • Gujarat Forensic Sciences University

  • Dr. Hari Singh Gaur Vishwavidyalaya, Madhya Pradesh

  • Khalsa College, Delhi University

  • Ramjas College (Certificate in Forensic Science)

  • Panjabi University, Patiala

  • Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar University, Agra

  • Karnataka University,

  • Osmania University, Hyderabad

  • University of Mysore, Mysore

  • University of Madras, Chennai

  • IP University, Delhi